Dr Rod Kavanagh
Senior Principal Research Scientist (- 2011)
Forest Science Centre, NSW Department of Primary Industries, West Pennant Hills 2119
Principal Research Ecologist (2012 -)
Niche Environment and Heritage Pty Ltd, Parramatta 2150
I began work in the south-east region of NSW in 1977 as part of the joint Forestry Commission-Australian Museum research team that was investigating the effects of intensive logging practices on wildlife. My first field trip was to “The Five Forests” (Tanja West, Tanja East, Mumbulla, Murrah and Bermagui State Forests) north-east of Bega where I began bird census counts on recently logged coupes and areas that had been subject to Timber Stand Improvement (TSI) during the 1960s. It was during this field trip that I saw, for the first time, a family group of Yellow-bellied Gliders in what is now Mimosa Rocks National Park, sparking a career-long fascination for gliders and possums, and indeed all nocturnal mammals and birds. The Yellow-bellied Glider was the subject of my first scientific paper, published in 1982, and this species was the subject of one of my most recent papers (published in 2011), with many other papers about gliders in between. This fascination for nocturnal forest fauna led me to complete a (part-time) MSc at the Australian National University in 1987, based on ecological studies of an entire community of gliders and possums living in the tall, montane, escarpment forests in Coolangubra State Forest (now South-east Forests National Park) about 20 km east of Bombala. I later completed a (part-time) PhD at the University of Sydney in 1997, based on ecological studies of the Powerful Owl, Sooty Owl and Masked Owl which covered the whole region.
My employment as a scientist with the Department (Forestry Commission, State Forests, Primary Industries) continued for more than 34 years (1977-2011), based at the Forest Science Centre (previously Forest Research Division) in West Pennant Hills, Sydney. This position led to numerous interesting opportunities and ecological research projects covering a wide range of species throughout the publicly-owned State Forests and National Parks of NSW. However, the forests of south-eastern NSW, particularly those between Eden, Bombala and the Victorian border, have remained of special interest to me. These forests have been the location for several of the most comprehensive, and long-running, ecological experiments ever done on forest fauna and flora in the country. The results of these studies have significantly influenced forest management in the region, and elsewhere, and contributed to the public debate about forest conservation and ecological sustainability. I have published 125 papers and reports, including 75 peer-reviewed articles in books and Australian and international scientific journals, and made more than 100 presentations at scientific conferences. During 2009-2011, I was a member of the NSW Scientific Committee.
Research in South-East NSW:
1. Regional surveys
Patterns of distribution and abundance of owls and gliders in relation to vegetation type, topography, geology and logging history throughout the south-east forests. Three region-wide surveys, involving 228 sites in 1988-89 (Kavanagh and Peake 1993b), 200 sites in 1992 (Kavanagh and Bamkin 1995) and 220 sites in 1994 (Kavanagh 1997) formed the basis of statistical models and subsequent mapping to represent the distribution of habitat for these species (Kavanagh 2002a).
An assessment of the contribution of forest and woodland fragments on privately-owned and other unprotected lands towards the conservation of large forest owls and their arboreal marsupial prey in the south-east region. Surveys at 120 sites during 1995 showed that small forest fragments within extensive agricultural areas provided little or no habitat for most forest-dependent species (Kavanagh and Stanton 2002).
Patterns of distribution and abundance of diurnal forest birds in relation to vegetation type, topography and logging/fire history throughout the south-east forests. A regional survey, involving 143 sites surveyed during 1976-1980, formed the basis of an understanding of bird species assemblages and their associations with different habitat types in the region (Recher, Kavanagh, Shields and Lind 1991).
2. Variable-intensity logging experiments
Before-after-control-impact experiments were conducted in the tall, montane tablelands/escarpment forests east of Bombala to determine the effects on fauna of a range of logging intensity treatments. These included standard logging operations (as applied in the mid-late 1980s) in which both sawlogs and woodchips were removed leaving approximately 10% tree canopy retention in logged areas, compared to modified or reduced intensity logging operations in which 25% and/or 50 % of the tree canopy was retained in logged areas. Published papers reported the short-term (0-7 years) effects of logging on a wide range of species (arboreal marsupials, small terrestrial/scansorial mammals, reptiles and amphibians) (Kavanagh and Webb 1998, Kavanagh 2000). Sampling continued for 25 years to record the rates of population recovery following these logging events, but these data remain unpublished.
3. Fuel-reduction burning (and logging) experiments
Before-after-control-impact experiments were conducted in Yambulla State Forest south-west of Eden to determine the cumulative effects of repeated fuel-reduction burning and logging on forest plants, birds, small mammals and reptiles. The design, scope, duration and attention to detail of this fire ecology study makes it one of the best of its kind in Australia. Pre-treatment assessments of flora and fauna were completed by 1987. Thereafter, logging was imposed on half of the experimental coupes (n=18) and the first burning treatments began in 1988. Coupes have now received between 0-10 burns, depending on treatment, over the past 25 years. Several papers documenting the intensity and extent of the logging and burning treatments, and their impacts on plant species assemblages, have been published (e.g. papers involving Kavanagh, including Penman et al. 2007, 2008a, 2008b, 2009), and others on related topics by Penman and co-authors). The data recording the responses of fauna species to logging and prescribed burning treatments remain unpublished.
4. Species recovery trajectories following disturbance
In addition to the long-term experiments described above in points 2. and 3., in which pre-treatment data were available, there were several long-term studies in which pre-logging and pre-wildfire data were not available. These studies included assessments of the impact on bird species assemblages of a change in the logging pattern from very large coupes to small, alternate-coupes. A study in Timbillica State Forest, south-west of Eden, began shortly after the first small alternate coupe logging pattern was implemented in 1976 and assessments of bird species composition and abundance continued for 32 years. Two papers documenting bird species recovery in the short and medium term post-logging were published (Kavanagh, Recher, Shields and Rohan-Jones 1985, Kavanagh and Stanton 2003), but there remains a further decade of data to this story which has not yet been published.
A similar long-term study assessed the presence of large forest owls and arboreal marsupials at 100 sites distributed throughout East Boyd State Forest, Ben Boyd National Park, Timbillica State Forest, Nadgee State Forest and Nadgee Nature Reserve. Sampling began in 1988, following the devastating wildfire of 1980 and earlier intensive logging during the 1970s, and continued every three years until 2011. A remarkable pattern of species recovery following these major disturbances was observed, but the data have not been published.
5. Ecology of threatened species
Numerous studies were undertaken to better understand the ecological requirements of threatened (and non-threatened) species so that sensible management recommendations could be developed. Publications arising from this work on threatened species in south-eastern NSW include: Kavanagh and Rohan-Jones 1982, Kavanagh 1984, Kavanagh 1987a, 1987b, Kavanagh 1988, Goldingay and Kavanagh 1990, 1991, 1993, Kavanagh 1992, 1996, McNabb, Kavanagh and Craig 1997, Kavanagh 2002a, 2002b, Kavanagh and Stanton 2002, Kavanagh 2004, Kavanagh et al. 2004 and Wintle, Kavanagh et al. 2005.
Ecological studies were also completed on a number of (currently) non-listed species. Among the most important of these were studies on the Greater Glider (Kavanagh 1988, Kavanagh and Lambert 1990, Kavanagh 2000 and Kavanagh and Wheeler 2004), a species which is very sensitive to logging.
6. Riparian reserves, buffer strips, coupe size and habitat trees
An early research finding was the importance to wildlife conservation in situ of retaining unlogged, mature forest distributed throughout the landscape. Old-forest retention was most effective for conservation, and provided least disruption to logging operations, when riparian zones (creeks and adjacent creek flats) were protected in this way (Recher, Shields, Kavanagh and Webb 1987). The tall, wet forest types typically found in or near riparian zones provided important habitat for many species (Recher, Kavanagh, Shields and Lind 1991). It was also recognised that logging impacts could be reduced by decreasing the distance of logged areas to unlogged forest. This was achieved through a reduction in the size of logged coupes and by spreading the impact across a larger area by logging alternate coupes (Kavanagh, Recher, Shields and Rohan-Jones 1985). Old forest elements (habitat trees) also began to be retained throughout logged areas and their densities (number per ha) were increased, depending on forest type, following research by Kavanagh (unpublished internal report 1992). These findings were implemented as part of the review of forest management procedures brought on by the Environmental Impact Assessments of forestry operations in the Eden region (1993-94).
7. Forest and woodland bird ecology
A significant research effort during the late 1970s and early 1980s was directed towards obtaining a detailed understanding of the ecology of forest and woodland birds in south-eastern NSW. Most of this work was located in native forest areas adjacent to, and within, the Pinus radiata plantations of Bondi State Forest, south of Bombala. These studies included: development of methods to census forest birds (e.g. Kavanagh and Recher 1983); documentation of the seasonal patterns of abundance (including migration) of bird species and how these fluctuate in relation to climate and food availability (Recher, Gowing, Kavanagh, Shields and Rohan-Jones 1983); and the foraging behaviour and use of forest structural and floristic attributes by an assemblage of forest and woodland bird species (e.g. Recher, Holmes, Schulz, Shields and Kavanagh 1985). Many other detailed studies were undertaken (e.g. bird territory mapping, based on observations of thousands of colour-banded birds, and bird nesting ecology, including annual fidelity to nest-sites and territories, together with annual breeding success), but the results of these studies have not been published.
[8. Eucalypt plantations on farms]
Extensive research on the role of eucalypt plantations in restoring habitat for wildlife in agricultural landscapes has been done in other regions of NSW (Holbrook-Wangaratta and the Liverpool Plains), but these results (e.g. Kavanagh et al. 2007 Austral Ecology 32, 635-650, Kavanagh and Stanton (2012) Ecological Management and Restoration 13, 297-305), and others (e.g. Kavanagh et al. 2007 Wildlife Research 34, 94-107) are also highly relevant to current issues (e.g. Koala conservation) in south-eastern NSW.
Subject of Presentation:
A personal perspective of the nature, scope and influence of forest wildlife research conducted in south-eastern NSW from 1977-2011.
Title: SOME PLACES ARE BETTER THAN OTHERS…
Abstract of Presentation:
South-eastern NSW, like many other regions in Australia, is a generally warm, dry, low-fertility, fire-prone environment with highly variable rainfall. Consequently, there are relatively few places in the landscape where species are concentrated or populations most abundant, yet these locations provide important refuges for many species. When conditions are favourable, population density for many species tends to increase and spread very slowly across the landscape, only to contract rapidly when conditions become unfavourable. Intensive forest management practices have placed additional stresses on many ecosystems within the region and it has been a career-long project to understand the effects of these overlays and to minimise their adverse, and sometimes cumulative, impacts on forest biodiversity.
Initial studies in the region confirmed the high degree of patchiness in the distribution and abundance of forest birds and mammals in the landscape. Further, it was recognised that intensive logging operations within large coupes, where few mitigative prescriptions were employed, resulted in a significant impact on populations of many species. Research quickly showed the importance of reducing the distance between logged and unlogged forest (e.g. reducing the size and spatial arrangement of logged coupes) and of retaining some mature forest within and adjacent to logged coupes to reduce these impacts. In particular, the (now) widespread practice of retaining old-forest in protected strips along all creeks and drainage lines throughout State Forests was perhaps the single most important conservation measure that has been implemented as it provided fauna with important refuges from logging, fire and drought. The subsequent Eden Regional Forest Agreement in 1999 extended these measures to include over-ridge corridors connecting drainage systems in adjacent catchments and standardised a range of additional prescriptions, including protection of rainforest and provision of buffers around nests, roosts and feed trees for a range of threatened species.
The cumulative effects of frequent (up to 10 burns), low-intensity, fuel-reduction burning regimes were found to be less harmful to flora and fauna than expected. A new treatment is being introduced to this long-term experiment to measure the effects of a less frequent, but higher intensity burning regime that may be more typical of current burning practice in the region. Protecting important habitat areas for wildlife through the application of scientifically-based prescriptions has been a successful strategy, however, this good work can be undone if numbers of introduced predators are not controlled. Indeed, bandicoots and potoroos have been observed using more open forests when foxes and wild dogs are controlled, hence increasing the available habitat for these species. In the future, as forestry in the south-east becomes more industrial in nature (i.e. shorter logging rotations, smaller average tree-sizes) it will be important to establish long-term, comprehensive biodiversity monitoring programs to assess the cumulative effects of these changes. At the same time, opportunities to restore habitat in priority areas (e.g. revegetation for Koalas in the Bega Valley) should be sought.
My Perspective on Science and its value to Society:
I am continually astounded by the low (and apparently decreasing) level of education, training and interest in science within Government and the general community. Science (including ecology) is fundamental to Society, yet many people seem prepared to ignore or overlook this reality in favour of other personal goals. Poor or delayed decisions about important issues usually result.
Personal objectives regarding Science:
I have always been driven by a desire to understand the reasons why animals and plants are found in the places, and in the numbers, that they occur. Wherever I go, I find myself looking at the landscape and mentally (or verbally!) describing its suitability for the range of species that must occur there. Of course, the activities of man and large-scale natural disturbances provide a complex overlay to these patterns. An immense source of frustration is lack of knowledge about historical and cumulative events. It is clear to me that Australian forest ecosystems are very different to those I have observed in northern Europe and North America, providing a renewed fascination for our unique continent.
My position as forest wildlife research scientist, a public service position within the NSW state government forestry agency, provided me with a great opportunity to explore these interests which, I hope, resulted in the provision of quality information and advice to Government and the general public regarding forest biodiversity and ecologically sustainable forest management.
Note: A higher resolution image of this photo is available if required (see below).
The joint Forestry Commission – Australian Museum wildlife research team of 1980-1981 standing or sitting on the stump of a large Brown Barrel tree (Eucalyptus fastigata) on the Victorian border in Bondi State Forest south of Bombala.
From left to right: Eve Kavanagh, Peter Dostine, Dick Holmes, Jim Shields, Wyn Jones, Greg Gowing, Harry Recher, Martin Schulz, Rod Kavanagh, John Woinarski and Kristin Bardsley.
Publications based on research in South-East NSW – R.P. Kavanagh:
Refereed Papers in Scientific Journals
Penman, T.D., Beukers, M., Kavanagh, R.P., Doherty, M. (2011). Are long unburnt eucalypt forest patches important for the conservation of plant species diversity? Applied Vegetation Science 14, 172-180.
Penman, T.D., Binns, D.L. and Kavanagh, R.P. (2009). Patch occupancy modelling as a method for monitoring changes in forest floristics: A case study in south-eastern Australia. Conservation Biology 23, 740-749.
Penman, T.D., Binns, D.L., Shiels, R.J., Allen, R.M. and Kavanagh, R.P. (2008). Changes in understorey plant species richness following logging and prescribed burning in shrubby dry sclerophyll forests of south-eastern Australia. Austral Ecology 33, 197-210.
Penman, T.D., Binns, D.L. and Kavanagh, R.P. (2008). Quantifying successional changes in response to forest disturbances. Applied Vegetation Science 11, 261-268.
Penman, T.D., Kavanagh, R.P., Binns, D.L. and Melick, D.R. (2007). Patchiness of prescribed burns in dry sclerophyll forests in south-eastern Australia. Forest Ecology and Management 252, 24-32.
McNabb, E.G., Kavanagh, R.P. and Craig, S.A. (2007). Further observations on the breeding biology of the Powerful Owl Ninox strenua in south-eastern Australia. Corella, 3 (1), 6-9.
Lemckert, F., Brassil, T., Kavanagh, R. and Law, B. (2006). Trapping small mammals for research and management: how many die and why? Australian Mammalogy 28, 201-207.
Wintle, B.A., Kavanagh, R.P., McCarthy, M.A. and Burgman, M.A. (2005). Estimating and dealing with detectability in occupancy surveys for forest owls and arboreal marsupials. Journal of Wildlife Management 69, 905-917.
Kavanagh, R.P. and Stanton, M.A. (2003). Bird population recovery 22 years after intensive logging near Eden, New South Wales. Emu 103, 221-231.
Wintle, B.A., McCarthy, M.A., Volinsky, C.T. and Kavanagh, R.P. (2003). The use of Bayesian Model Averaging to better represent uncertainty in ecological models. Conservation Biology 17, 1579-1590.
Kavanagh, R.P. (2000). Effects of variable-intensity logging and the influence of habitat variables on the distribution of the Greater Glider Petauroides volans in montane forest, southeastern New South Wales. Pacific Conservation Biology 6, 18-30.
Kavanagh, R.P. and Webb, G.A. (1998). Effects of variable-intensity logging on mammals, reptiles and amphibians at Waratah Creek, southeastern New South Wales. Pacific Conservation Biology 4, 326-347.
Kavanagh, R.P. (1998). Thesis abstracts: Ecology and management of large forest owls in southeastern Australia. Australian Journal of Ecology 23, 184-185.
Kavanagh, R.P. (1996). The breeding biology and diet of the Masked Owl Tyto novaehollandiae near Eden, New South Wales. Emu 96, 158-165.
Goldingay, R.L. and Kavanagh, R.P. (1995). Foraging behaviour and habitat use of the Feathertail Glider (Acrobates pygmaeus) at Waratah Creek, New South Wales. Wildlife Research 22, 457-470.
Kavanagh, R.P. and Bamkin, K.L. (1995). Distribution of nocturnal forest birds and mammals in relation to the logging mosaic in south-eastern New South Wales, Australia. Biological Conservation 71, 41-53.
Goldingay, R.L. and Kavanagh, R.P. (1993). Home-range estimates and habitat of the Yellow-bellied Glider (Petaurus australis) at Waratah Creek, New South Wales. Wildlife Research 20, 387-404.
Kavanagh, R.P. (1992). Reply. The impact of predation by the Powerful Owl Ninox strenua on a population of the Greater Glider Petauroides volans. Australian Journal of Ecology 17, 469-472.
Recher, H.F., Kavanagh, R.P., Shields, J.M. and Lind, P. (1991). Ecological association of bird species and habitats during the breeding season in southeastern New South Wales. Australian Journal of Ecology 16, 337-352.
Goldingay, R.L. and Kavanagh, R.P. (1990). Socioecology of the Yellow-bellied Glider (Petaurus australis) at Waratah Creek, N.S.W. Australian Journal of Zoology 38, 327-341.
Kavanagh, R.P. and Lambert, M.J. (1990). Food selection by the Greater Glider Petauroides volans: Is foliar nitrogen a determinant of habitat quality? Australian Wildlife Research 17, 285-299.
Kavanagh, R.P. (1988). The impact of predation by the Powerful Owl, Ninox strenua, on a population of the Greater Glider, Petauroides volans. Australian Journal of Ecology 13, 445-450.
Goldingay, R.L. and Kavanagh, R.P. (1988). Detectability of the Feathertail Glider, Acrobates pygmaeus (Marsupialia: Burramyidae), in relation to measured weather variables. Australian Mammalogy 11, 67-70.
Kavanagh, R.P. (1987). Forest phenology and its effect on foraging behaviour and selection of habitat by the Yellow-bellied Glider, Petaurus australis Shaw. Australian Wildlife Research 14, 371-384.
Kavanagh, R.P. (1987). Foraging behaviour of the Yellow-bellied Glider, Petaurus australis (Marsupialia: Petauridae), near Eden, New South Wales. Australian Mammalogy 10, 37-39.
Recher, H.F., Holmes, R.T., Schulz, M., Shields, J. and Kavanagh, R. (1985). Foraging patterns of breeding birds in eucalypt forest and woodland of southeastern Australia. Australian Journal of Ecology 10, 399-419.
Recher, H.F., Gowing, G., Kavanagh, R., Shields, J. and Rohan-Jones, W. (1983). Birds, resources and time in a tablelands forest. Proceedings of the Ecological Society of Australia 12, 101-123.
Kavanagh, R.P. and Recher, H.F. (1983). Effects of observer variability on the census of birds. Corella 7, 93-100.
Kavanagh, R.P. and Rohan-Jones, W.G. (1982). Calling behaviour of the Yellow-bellied Glider, Petaurus australis Shaw (Marsupialia: Petauridae). Australian Mammalogy 5, 95-111.
Newton, I., Kavanagh, R.P., Olsen, J. and Taylor, I.R. (eds) (2002). The Ecology and Conservation of Owls. CSIRO, Melbourne.
Refereed Book Chapters and Reports
Kavanagh, R.P., Loyn, R.H., Smith, G.C., Taylor, R.J. and Catling, P.C. (2004). Which species should be monitored to indicate ecological sustainability in Australian forest management? Pp. 959-987 in Conservation of Australia’s Forest Fauna (second edition), ed. by D. Lunney. Royal Zoological Society of NSW, Sydney.
Kavanagh, R.P. (2004). Distribution and conservation status of possums and gliders in New South Wales. Pp. 130-148 in The Biology of Australian Possums and Gliders, ed. by R.L. Goldingay and S.M. Jackson. Surrey Beatty and Sons, Sydney.
Kavanagh, R.P. and Wheeler, R.J. (2004). Home-range of the Greater Glider Petauroides volans in tall montane forest of south-eastern New South Wales, and changes following logging. Pp. 413-425 in The Biology of Australian Possums and Gliders, ed. by R.L. Goldingay and S.M. Jackson. Surrey Beatty and Sons, Sydney.
Kavanagh, R.P. (2002). Conservation and management of large forest owls in south-eastern Australia. In, I. Newton, R.P. Kavanagh, J. Olsen, I.R. Taylor (eds) The ecology and conservation of owls. CSIRO, Melbourne.
Kavanagh, R.P. (2002). Comparative diets of the Powerful Owl, Sooty Owl and Masked Owl in south-eastern New South Wales. In, I. Newton, R.P. Kavanagh, J. Olsen, I.R. Taylor (eds) The ecology and conservation of owls. CSIRO, Melbourne.
Kavanagh, R.P. and Stanton, M.A. (2002). Response to habitat fragmentation by the Powerful Owl, Sooty Owl, Masked Owl and other nocturnal fauna in south-eastern New South Wales. In, I. Newton, R.P. Kavanagh, J. Olsen, I.R. Taylor (eds) The ecology and conservation of owls. CSIRO, Melbourne.
Kavanagh, R.P. (1997). Ecology and Management of Large Forest Owls in South-eastern Australia. PhD Thesis, University of Sydney, Sydney.
Kavanagh, R.P. (1994). Powerful Owl Ninox strenua. Pp. 70-74 in Cuckoos, Nightbirds and Kingfishers of Australia, ed. by R. Strahan. Angus and Robertson, Sydney.
Kavanagh, R.P. and Peake, P. (1993b). Distribution and habitats of nocturnal forest birds in south-eastern New South Wales. Pp. 101-125 in Australian Raptor Studies, ed. by P. Olsen. Royal Australasian Ornithologists Union, Melbourne.
Kavanagh, R.P. and Peake, P. (1993a). Survey procedures for nocturnal forest birds: An evaluation of the variability in census results due to temporal factors, weather and technique. Pp. 86-100 in Australian Raptor Studies, ed. by P. Olsen. Royal Australasian Ornithologists Union, Melbourne.
Kavanagh, R.P. (1991). The target species approach to wildlife management: gliders and owls in the forests of southeastern New South Wales. Pp. 377-383 in Conservation of Australia’s Forest Fauna, ed. by D. Lunney. Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales.
Goldingay, R.L. and Kavanagh, R.P. (1991). The Yellow-bellied Glider: a review of its ecology, and management considerations. Pp. 365-375 in Conservation of Australia’s Forest Fauna, ed. by D. Lunney. Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales.
Kavanagh, R.P. (1987). Floristic and Phenological Characteristics of a Eucalypt Forest in Relation to its Use by Arboreal Marsupials. M.Sc. Thesis, Australian National University, Canberra.
Recher, H.F., Shields, J., Kavanagh, R. and Webb, G. (1987). Retaining remnant mature forest for nature conservation at Eden, New South Wales: A review of theory and practice. Pp. 177-194 in Nature Conservation: The Role of Remnants of Native Vegetation, ed. by D.A. Saunders, G.W. Arnold, A.A. Burbidge and A.J.M. Hopkins. Surrey Beatty and Sons in association with CSIRO and CALM.
Kavanagh, R.P., Shields, J.M., Recher, H.F. and Rohan-Jones, W.G. (1985). Bird populations of a logged and unlogged forest mosaic at Eden, N.S.W. Pp. 273-281 in Birds of Eucalypt Forests and Woodlands: Ecology, Conservation, Management, ed. by A. Keast, H.F. Recher, H. Ford and D. Saunders. Royal Australasian Ornithologists Union and Surrey Beatty and Sons.
Kavanagh, R.P. (1984). Seasonal changes in habitat use by gliders and possums in south-eastern New South Wales. In, A.P. Smith and I.D. Hume (eds) Possums and Gliders. Australian Mammal Society, Sydney. pp. 527-543.
Non-refereed Papers and Reports
Munks, S.A., Kavanagh, R.P. and Loyn, R.H. (2010). Monitoring effectiveness of forest practices to conserve biodiversity in western North America: lessons for Australian forest management. A report to the Max Jacobs Fund Committee, the Forest Practices Authority, Tasmania, the Department of Industry and Investment, New South Wales and the Arthur Rylah Institute, Victoria. (http://www.dpi.nsw.gov.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0011/357284/F-and-RR_2010_Output-1774_et-al-Kavanagh_Biodiversity-Report_REPORT.pdf)
Kavanagh, R. (2007). Monitoring biodiversity in Scandinavia: Lessons for Australian forest management. 2007 Gottstein Fellowship Report, Gottstein Trust, Melbourne. October 2007. (http://www.gottsteintrust.org/html/reports/catalog.htm#rkavanagh)
Penman, T.D., Binns, D.L. and Kavanagh, R.P. (2007). Burning for biodiversity or burning the biodiversity. Proceedings of the Australasian Fire Association Council Conference, Hobart, Australia. http://proceedings.com.au/tassiefire/papers_pdf/fri_penman.pdf
Kavanagh, R.P. (2000). Draft Recovery Plan for the Large Forest Owls: Powerful Owl Ninox strenua, Sooty Owl Tyto tenebricosa, Masked Owl Tyto novaehollandiae. National Parks and Wildlife Service, Hurstville. Draft for public comment.
Kavanagh, R.P. (1994). Ecology and management of large forest owls. Final report to World Wide Fund for Nature (Australia) for Project 149.
Binns, D. and Kavanagh, R.P. (1990). Flora and fauna survey, Nullica State Forest (part) Eden District, Eden Region. Forestry Commission of New South Wales, Forest Resources Series No. 10. 134 pp.
Binns, D.L. and Kavanagh, R.P. (1990). Flora and fauna survey of Nalbaugh State Forest (part) Bombala District, Eden Region, south-eastern New South Wales. Forestry Commission of New South Wales, Forest Resources Series No. 9. 103 pp.
Kavanagh, R.P. (1990). Survey of Powerful and Sooty Owls in south-eastern New South Wales. Final report to World Wildlife Fund (Australia) for Project 120.
Shields, J.M. and Kavanagh, R.P. (1985). Wildlife research and management in the Forestry Commission of N.S.W.: A review. Forestry Commission of N.S.W. Technical Paper No. 32. 84 pp.
Kavanagh, R.P. (1983). Forestry and conserving arboreal mammals. Forest and Timber 19(1), 8-11.
Other relevant papers by Garry Webb (previously of the Forest Science Centre, Sydney) including:
Webb, G.A. (1985). Habitat use and activity patterns in some southeastern Australian skinks. Pp. 23-30 in Biology of Australasian Frogs and Reptiles, ed. By G. Grigg, R. Shine and H. Ehmann. Surrey-Beatty and Sons, Sydney.
Webb, G.A. (1991a). The effects of logging on populations of small ground-dwelling vertebrates in montane eucalypt forest in south-eastern New South Wales. M.Sc. Thesis, Australian National University, Canberra.
Webb, G.A. (1991b). A survey of the reptiles and amphibians of Bondi State Forest and surrounding areas, near Bombala, New South Wales. Australian Zoologist 27, 14-19.
Webb, G.A. (1995). Effects of logging on lizards in eucalypt forest at Eden, New South Wales. Australian Zoologist 58, 155-159.
Many other relevant, but more recent, papers on herpetofauna (and understorey plants) by Dr Trent Penman and Dr Frank Lemckert (both previously of the Forest Science Centre, Sydney)
Papers on the distribution, and factors explaining the abundance, of arboreal marsupials in the south-east forests (Dr Wayne Braithwaite, CSIRO Canberra).
Papers on the ecology of terrestrial mammals, including introduced predators, in far south-eastern NSW (Dr Peter Catling, CSIRO Canberra)
Papers on the ecology and impacts of forestry practices on birds (Dr Peter Smith, Australian Museum and NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service), mammals, reptiles and amphibians in the “Five Forests” north-east of Bega (Dr Dan Lunney, NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service).